Headlights to Taillights: Winter is coming, is your vehicle ready?

By Mark Kozemko, Johnson College’s Automotive Technology Program Director

Original published in the October 23, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage.

https://www.thevalleyadvantage.com/community-columns/headlights-to-taillights-winter-is-coming-is-your-vehicle-ready/article_db15e1b5-d8ef-5d52-b635-c219b11105a6.html

You know winter is fast approaching when leaves start hitting the ground and temperatures drop, like they are now.

Most households have a winterization processes in place. They can include rearranging the closet, so winter clothes are out front, removing air conditioners from windows and preparing the furnace for winter operation.

While you’re working on winterizing your home, you also need to have a plan for your vehicles. This brings us to a few questions I received about how to winterize a vehicle to ensure it runs smoothly through the coldest months of the year.

The first question is, “What steps in the winterization process are priorities and which aren’t?”

All the steps below in your vehicle winterization process are priorities, but they don’t have to be completed in the specific order they’re listed.

Priority No. 1 is your battery. There’s nothing worse than getting in your cold vehicle, turning the key and hearing a clicking noise — or maybe nothing at all.

A battery will not always give you a warning before it fails. They can fail at any time, but cold weather really affects a weak battery. Have your battery tested to determine the current condition, so you know if your battery needs to be replaced so you don’t experience that no-start moment.

Priority No. 2 is the depth of your tires’ treads. There needs to be enough tread to keep the tire safe through the season. The more tread, the better. If you’re someone who uses winter tires, now is the time to swap out the summer tires for winter ones. Remember, if you install studded winter tires, they cannot be installed on your vehicle until Nov. 1, and must be removed by April 15.

With all or most vehicles being equipped with tire pressure monitor systems, it is very important to check and adjust the tire pressure. In cold weather, tire pressure is lower than it would be in warmer weather. This lower pressure, if not corrected, may trigger the tire pressure warning light to illuminate on your dashboard. If it does, check your pressure immediately and add air where needed.

Something very few people think of is the spare tire. If your vehicle comes with a spare, make sure it’s inflated to the proper air pressure.

Priority No. 3 is a coolant freeze protection check. During the check, a sample of your vehicle’s coolant is tested for the concentration of ethylene-glycol in the coolant mixture. This means the percentage of water compared to the percentage of anti-freeze in the mixture. An acceptable mixture for our northeast region is 50/50. This mixture gives the coolant a freeze protection of approximately -34⁰F. If your coolant isn’t protected correctly, it can ice up and cause catastrophic damage to your engine.

Priority No. 4 is checking and monitoring your vehicle’s other fluids through the winter months. The windshield washer reservoir should be filled with a solvent specially made with a lower freeze point than plain water, much like coolant.

Priority No. 5 is the condition of your wiper blades. If your blades aren’t in good condition, they will not be able to properly clear ice and snow from your windshield. As you know, if your windshield isn’t cleared, your vision will be obstructed and the possibility of an accident increases.

Priority No. 6 is preparing a small survival kit to put in your trunk just in case you break down. This kit should include items such as gloves, socks, a blanket or another winter coat, and anything else you might need while you wait for assistance to arrive. No matter when you use your car, always make sure your cell phone is fully charged or close to it. You don’t want to break down in the dead of winter with a cell phone that doesn’t work.

“What steps in the winterization process can be done by an owner and which ones must be completed by a technician?” is our second question.

The battery and coolant freeze point checks should be performed by a qualified technician. The other checks and inspections in our winterization process above can also be completed by a technician, but you can easily do them over a weekend. Equipment, tools and, of course, replacement parts needed for your vehicle winterization project are more than likely available at your local parts store.

However you decide to winterize your vehicle, make sure you do it. This process will help you avoid any major automotive issues during the long, cold winter months.

The next Headlights to Taillights column will be published in the November 27, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage. 

From Headlights to Taillights: Getting an Annual Checkup

By Mark Kozemko, Johnson College’s Automotive Technology Program Director

Original published in the September 25, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage.

https://www.thevalleyadvantage.com/community-columns/from-headlights-to-taillights-getting-an-annual-checkup/article_9a8ee3f1-cf89-549d-9f31-e3ceffde60ad.html

As we’ve discussed in previous columns, your vehicles rely on repair shops and technicians to keep them operating and safe, the same way you rely on hospitals and doctors to keep you safe and healthy.

Normally, your health care provider suggests you visit your doctor once a year for an annual check-up. The same can be said about your vehicle needing yearly inspections by a licensed technician. Except completing vehicle inspections annually aren’t recommendations like a medical check-up, it’s the law in Pennsylvania.

This brings us to a few questions I received about vehicle inspections.

The first question is, “Why do vehicle inspections have to be done each year?”

The two annual inspections are required to ensure your vehicle conforms to Pennsylvania transportation regulations governing safety and emissions. As you might have guessed, the vehicle safety inspection is designed to keep your vehicle operating safely so you, your passengers and any pedestrians are as safe as possible.

The vehicle emissions inspection is designed to check emission components to make sure they are in place as designed. This inspection protects the environment by restricting the amount of pollutants your vehicle is allowed to produce when in use.

“What do technicians review during the inspections?” is our second question.

During a vehicle safety inspection, a technician will thoroughly inspect components from headlights to taillights and everything in between. Glass is checked for damage or chips. Lights and lenses are checked.

Components under your vehicle, like front and rear suspension parts, exhaust systems, shocks/struts, axles and drive shafts are also checked, as well as frame condition. Wheels and tires are also checked at this time for excessive wear or damage. They will also remove the wheels to check brake components.

Several things inside your vehicle are also inspected. These include windshield wiper/washer operation, dashboard indicator lights, windshield defrosters, seats, seat belts, mirrors and door latches. The body and undercarriage are also checked for rust.

During the vehicle emission inspection, the emission components are inspected to make sure they are installed as designed. In certain counties in Pennsylvania, emission inspections must be performed through a special machine. This machine also checks the fuel filler cap to make sure it holds a specific amount of pressure.

In other counties in Pennsylvania, vehicles have to pass what we call, a full On-Board Diagnostics emission inspection. This inspection includes all the above, plus, a vehicle readiness scan and an exhaust sniff test.

Our third question is, “What causes a vehicle to fail either inspection?”

Overall, your vehicle will fail a safety inspection if any of the components inspected are worn, broken or missing.

For instance, if your steering wheel is loose enough that you don’t know the position of the front wheels, your vehicle will fail because the steering system is compromised. Once a part is worn and has excessive play, it can’t fix itself. It will only get worse and ultimately need to be replaced.

Your vehicle can also fail because friction material on brake pads fall below a thickness of 2/32; broken, cracked or missing rearview mirrors; fuel or brake system fluid leaks; exhaust systems not being secured properly or experiencing leakage; non-working lights; a broken or cracked lens; exterior or floorboard rust and many another reasons.

Your vehicle can also fail the safety inspection if your tires fall below the required tire depth. Keep in mind, tire depth changes based on the type of vehicle you own. Minimum tread depth in Pennsylvania is 2/32, but if you drive a SUV or truck that has a gross weight over 10,000 pounds, the minimum tread depth on the steer tires is 4/32.

Your vehicle will fail an emission inspection if required components are missing or disconnected. In certain Pennsylvania counties, your vehicle must not fail the fuel filler cap test and/or the full OBD inspection.

“What can owners do to reduce the risk of failure?” is our fourth and last question.

You should have confidence in your repair shop and technician. Trust them when they tell you throughout the year that your vehicle needs repairs. The needed repairs may be the difference of your vehicle passing or failing its annual inspections.

You’re required by Pennsylvania law to have a licensed technician inspect your vehicle annually. This shouldn’t be the only time you look over your vehicle. Anything can happen throughout the year and you need to be aware when your vehicle is running well and when it needs to visit its doctor … I mean repair shop.

The next Headlights to Taillights column will be published in the October 23, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage. 

From Headlights to Taillights: Clearing the Air

By Mark Kozemko, Johnson College’s Automotive Technology Program Director

Original published in the September 4, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage. https://www.thevalleyadvantage.com/community-columns/from-headlights-to-taillights-clearing-the-air/article_d51da5d8-cb42-5c02-b5df-ebb3c0c00f44.html

We all try to breathe the cleanest air possible. Our body’s natural air filter located in our breathing system usually does a fine job. Unless, of course, we have a cold or allergy which results in a stuffy nose. When this happens we can’t breathe properly. The condition makes us feel tired and sluggish. We’ve all been there, right?

If your vehicle’s engine or heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) breathing systems can’t breathe correctly, your vehicle gets tired and sluggish, too. This is caused by your vehicle’s air filters not performing properly due to being dirty, or simple wear and tear.

Today, we’re talking about air filters that help your vehicle breathe. Below are a few questions I received about vehicle air filters. So let’s get started.

The first question is, “Are there different types of air filters in a car, and what do they do?”

Yes, each vehicle has different types of air filters. Late model vehicles have at least two different air filters as standard equipment. The first filter is the engine intake air filter and the second is the heating/cooling system intake air filter, or cabin filter. If you have a vehicle equipped with air brakes, normally a heavy duty truck, it will also have an intake air filter for the air compressor, which is the heart of the air brakes.

Now let’s talk about what each one does for your vehicle.

The engine intake air filter is designed to filter the air that the engine uses for combustion in the cylinders. Not only does it filter the air going into an engine, it allows the proper amount of air in to produce optimum combustion. When an engine intake air filter is dirty, the air flow becomes restricted and combustion may not be complete. The restricted air flow causes an engine to run poorly and use more fuel because the cylinders are not getting the correct amount of air. This condition will decrease fuel mileage and may also cause black smoke from the exhaust.

The cabin air filter filters air coming into the passenger compartment/cabin. Modern vehicles have systems constantly circulating air through the cabin using outside air. The filter catches pollutants, debris and allergens that can get into your vehicle. This filter can get clogged and pretty nasty. If you ever see a dirty cabin filter, it will make you wonder about the air we breathe on a regular basis.

The intake air filter inside air brakes filters air taken into the compressor used to operate the air brake system. Needless to say, if this filter blocks up and restricts air flow to the compressor, the results can be devastating because the brakes will not work.

You vehicle’s air filters should be checked often. If the filters are left unchecked, engines may run poorly, cabin air quality and air flow may diminish, or brake systems will not function properly.

“How often do they need to be changed?” is our second question.

Manufacturers suggest service intervals for each of the air filters in your vehicle. These service intervals are for vehicles driven in what manufactures call normal conditions. Driving on dirt or dusty roads, through construction areas — we know there are plenty of those in northeastern Pennsylvania — and poor air quality are contributors to decreasing the lifespan of your air filters. At the very least, you should always follow the service and replacement intervals noted in your vehicle’s owner’s manual. As with any service, it doesn’t hurt to do it more often but I recommend that you don’t extend the time between air filter services.

Our final question is, “Can the filters be changed by owners or must they be changed by technicians?”

If you’re an owner who is comfortable performing some of your own maintenance, you shouldn’t have any challenges replacing the engine intake or cabin filters. Keep in mind some cabin filters are very hard to find because they’re tucked under the dashboard. If you’re not comfortable, by all means, have your repair shop do the service.

You may not see your vehicle’s air filters or even think about them often, but they do need your, or a service technician’s, attention from time to time. They’re vital to keeping your vehicle performing efficiently and making sure you and your passengers breathe the cleanest air possible.

The next Headlights to Taillights column will be published in the September 25, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage.  

Headlights to Taillights: When The Rubber Hits The Road

By Mark Kozemko, Johnson College’s Automotive Technology program director
Original published in the July 24, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage. https://www.thevalleyadvantage.com/community-columns/from-headlights-to-taillights-when-the-rubber-hits-the-road/article_79003ac2-8a5d-50c9-9ff5-aeec7c6f96f4.html

Most vehicle owners rely on some sort of repair shop or repair technician to take care of their vehicle, much like we all rely on our doctors to take care of our bodies. So today, we’re talking about how to take care of your vehicle’s feet, the tires. Several questions have been brought to my attention regarding tires. So let’s get started.

The first question is: “How important are good tires?”

This is a loaded question because the definition of a “good” tire may differ from one person to the next. First off, let’s change good to safe. Safety is the top priority. Several conditions will deem a tire unsafe. This includes low tread depth, uneven wear, low tire pressure and rubber deterioration, also known as dry rot.

If all of the vehicle suspension components and steering geometry, or alignment, are in good condition, tires will wear evenly and you will get the most out of them as possible. If there are worn suspension parts or the alignment is off, then tires will wear unevenly and require replacement more often. When tires are replaced because of uneven wear, it may indicate a problem other than tires. If this is the case, have your suspension parts and the alignment checked.

“What effect do tires have on the overall wear and tear of my vehicle?” is our second question.

Let’s start with an easy analogy. It’s summer time, so we’ll use a beach ball as an example. Picture a flat level surface and a beach ball. With the correct amount of air pressure the ball will roll smoothly over the surface and reach the finish line. Now take air pressure away and try to roll the ball. The ball will not roll as smoothly and will have to be pushed more often to get it to the finish line. On the other extreme, you now have a ball with too much air pressure. This ball rolls OK but every imperfection in the surface causes the ball to bounce, which may throw the ball off course.

What does this all mean? Simply, correct tire pressure is critical to obtaining optimum performance from your tires and from all of your vehicle systems. Too little pressure causes tires to wear on both inner and outer shoulders and, like the ball needing more power to get across the finish line, your engine will work harder than it should to get you moving. Too much air in the tire causes it to bounce excessively, causing premature wear on suspension parts. A wear pattern on the tires will resemble cups in the tread called cupping. If the pressure is too high but not high enough to cause bouncing, the tire will wear in the center all the way around, requiring replacement.

Most, if not all vehicles produced since 2010 are equipped with a Tire Pressure Monitoring System. This system monitors the air pressure in your tires. If your vehicle isn’t equipped with a Tire Pressure Monitoring System, it’s important for you to check your tire pressure regularly, usually every other stop at the gas station.

Now to our last question. “Are snow tires really necessary?”

Well, yes and no. it all depends on your comfort zone on driving without them. Winter tires, formally known as snow tires, provide increased driver confidence along with added traction to get you to your destination. If you use winter tires on all-wheel drive vehicles and SUVs, make sure you use four of them. I also recommend running winter tires on all four wheels on a rear-wheel or front-wheel drive vehicles.

To conclude, as with everything, tire technology has greatly advanced. If you’re comfortable enough to determine the condition of your tires and you believe they need to be replaced, by all means, do it.

If you aren’t sure, like most vehicle owners, build a relationship with a repair shop or dealer. Trusting your body or vehicle to others are big steps. When you find the right doctor or repair shop it gives you the best opportunity to keep you or your vehicle running efficiently and safely.

The next Headlights to Taillights column will be published in the August 28, 2020 edition of the Valley Advantage.